Study of brain networks shows differences in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder

first_imgEmail “Most fundamentally, we show that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, a key region of the brain associated with cognitive control, exerts exaggerated brain network effects in OCD,” said Dr. Diwadkar, an associate professor. “This result provides a putative scientific framework for what clinicians have noted about OCD-related behaviors. These network-based effects have been suggested, but not explicitly demonstrated before in brain imaging data in the disorder. Our studies are perfectly aligned with the renewed emphasis of the National Institute of Mental Health to discover mechanisms of neuropsychiatric disease in the brain. If you can discover a reliable mechanism underlying disease, you have the promise of improved pathways toward treatment.”The results are highly consistent with observations in the clinic, said Dr. Rosenberg, who is a professor and the department’s chair. “Children with OCD are beset by preoccupations and can’t easily move on from certain tasks and behaviors. As all complex behavior arises from brain networks, being trapped in this mode must arise from impaired brain network interactions in OCD. In our previous studies we had focused on assessing the structure and the neurochemistry of the anterior cingulate. We had long suspected that brain network interactions originating in this region are impaired in the disorder. But this is the first study to clearly demonstrate this.”The full paper, “Dysfunctional activation and brain network profiles in youth with obsessive-compulsive disorder: a focus on the dorsal anterior cingulate during working memory,” appears in a special issue of the journal Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, and is available to the public on the journal’s website. LinkedIn A new study by scientists at the Wayne State University School of Medicine demonstrates that communication between some of the brain’s most important centers is altered in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder.The research led by the Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neuroscience’s David Rosenberg, M.D., and Vaibhav Diwadkar, Ph.D., sheds significant light on our understanding of how brain networks contribute to obsessive-compulsive disorder in youth.The study included youth with a diagnosis of OCD and a comparison group free of psychiatric illness. The investigators used functional magnetic resonance imaging, or fMRI, to collect brain responses while participants engaged in a basic working memory task. Task difficulty was varied to evoke activity in a core brain sub-network responsible for implementing complex processes such as cognitive control. Then, using sophisticated network analyses, the investigators quantified differences in brain network function between the two groups. Pinterestcenter_img Share Share on Facebook Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Yellow fever persists in Brazil; Netherlands reports case

first_imgBoth the standard and fractional doses of the yellow fever vaccine will be used across some of Brazil’s most populous regions in the upcoming months to prevent further spread of the flavivirus, as the Netherlands reported an illness in a returning traveler.Details of the vaccination campaign are published in the latest epidemiologic update from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the Dutch imported yellow fever case was described in a post from ProMED Mail, the online reporting system of the International Society for Infectious Diseases.Vaccine push follows spurt of casesAccording to PAHO, 19.7 million people in Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, and Bahia states, will be targeted in a vaccination campaign conducted in February and March. Fifteen million people will get the fractional dose (0.1mL) and 4.7 million will receive the standard dose (0.5 mL) Both doses offer 99% immunity against the virus within 30 days of immunization.A full dose of yellow fever vaccine offers lifelong immunity, while the fractional doses will require future boosters.Brazil hopes the vaccination campaign will break the yellow fever transmission cycle. Between July of 2017 and the end of the year, there were 11 confirmed cases of yellow fever reported in Brazil, and since 2016, there have been 777 confirmed cases, 261 deaths, by far the most number of cases experienced by any South American country in recent years.The latest cases were reported from Federal district, as well as Sao Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Rio de Janeiro states.Still no evidence of Aedes transmissionThere is still no evidence that the Aedes aegypti mosquito is involved in the current transmission cycle, the PAHO report said. But there have been 2,296 epizootics reported between July and December of 2017, of which 358 were confirmed as yellow fever. The state with the highest number of confirmed epizootics is Sao Paulo (322).”The number of human cases and epizootics collectively reported in this period in the Region of the Americas is the highest observed in decades. The observed increase is as much related to an ecosystem favorable to the dissemination of the virus as to the unimmunized populations,” PAHO said.Dutch traveler had visited a Brazil hot spotIn related news, a scientist from Erasmus Medical Center in the Netherlands reported that a Dutch man who traveled to Brazil at the end of December contracted yellow fever.The 46-year-old man was not vaccinated and experienced symptoms beginning on Jan 7, the day before he arrived back in the Netherlands. He traveled to Brazil between Dec 18 and Jan 8, primarily in Sao Paulo. He has recovered fully after he was diagnosed and treated at Erasmus.His case shows the need for travelers to be vaccinated against yellow fever at least 10 days before visiting endemic areas and for clinicians to include yellow fever in the differential diagnosis in sick patients returning from areas, including cities, where the disease is endemic.See also:Jan 12 PAHO reportJan 15 ProMed Mail postlast_img read more

John Bartlett Jr. Named Chairman of Aftermarket Auto Parts Alliance Board

first_imgSAN ANTONIO – John Bartlett, Jr., CEO of Automotive Parts Headquarters (APH) in Saint Cloud, Minn., was installed as chairman of the Aftermarket Auto Parts Alliance board of directors at the group’s recent meeting in Miami.    During his two-year term, Bartlett will work closely with the board, Alliance headquarters staff and other Alliance shareholders to shape strategy and set priorities for the group. Bartlett has been at the helm of APH since 1976, and the company has been an active member of the Alliance since 1986.   “Continuously growing and developing the group is everyone’s responsibility at the Alliance,” said Bartlett. “A lot of critical support comes from our headquarters team in San Antonio, and our board is extremely proactive and supportive. But our real strength is in our shareholders at large. I look forward to working with all of these constituencies in the coming years.”   In addition to his work on the Alliance group board of directors, Bartlett has served as a member of the Automotive Warehouse Distributors Association Board of Governors. He also is on the board of WACOSA, an organization that provides training and work opportunities for people with disabilities throughout central Minnesota.       AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisementlast_img read more

By Royal Appointment: interview with Sir Stuart Hampson

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USCG: Deepwater Horizon response far from over

first_img“Our response posture has evolved to target re-oiling events on coastline segments that were previously cleaned,” said Capt. Thomas Sparks, the FOSC for the Deepwater Horizon Response. “But let me be absolutely clear: This response is not over—not by a long shot. The transition to the Middle Response process does not end clean-up operations, and we continue to hold the responsible party accountable for Deepwater Horizon cleanup costs.”The term “Middle R” is used to describe an enhanced NRC process of responding to reports of oiling across the Gulf with (1) dedicated Coast Guard teams pre-positioned for rapid response to residual oil; and (2) pre-stationed Oil Spill Removal Organizations on standby, ready to clean when directed. This process is fully functioning on more than 3,200 miles of Louisiana shoreline as well as along the Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi coasts.According to Sparks, the “Middle R” process requires continued but more focused response equipment and personnel. This makes it not only a more nimble tool for targeted responses across a wide geographic area, but also reduces the impact on the coastal environment.“Whenever an NRC case is initiated anywhere in the Gulf—which happens virtually every day—active clean-up operations are undertaken, and we go out and clean up the oil,” Sparks added.Across the Gulf Coast, dedicated Coast Guard personnel have responded to 1,082 suspected Deepwater Horizon NRC reports and overseen the cleanup of more than 5,500 pounds of oily material since June 2013.This transition is the latest in various process evolutions that account for changing oiling conditions and scientific data. The Coast Guard also surges personnel to address potential re-oiling caused by extraordinary events such as hurricanes, severe storms, and unusual tidal conditions.“We are absolutely committed to continuing the clean-up of Deepwater Horizon oil along the Gulf – for as long as it takes, and to surge as necessary and as the situation dictates,” Sparks emphasized. The Coast Guard federal on-scene coordinator (FOSC) for the Deepwater Horizon Response completed the transition to the “Middle Response” (“Middle R”) process today and opened active National Response Center (NRC) cases for three miles of coastline in Louisiana. [mappress]Press Release, April 16, 2014last_img read more

Spotted: Antwerp Welcomes 50-Meter Monsters

first_imgAs part of the MSC PSA European Terminal (MPET) expansion and modernization program, the Belgian Port of Antwerp today welcomed five new gantry cranes. The 50-meter high cranes arrived to the port aboard the Hong-Kong flagged general cargo vessel Zhen Hua 27.MPET’s new toys will be able to handle ships with 25 rows of containers stacked.The terminal, located at the Delwaide dock on the right bank, was officially opened on 15 June 2005.The terminal is a joint venture between PSA and Terminal Investment Limited (TIL).According to MPET, in order to support the expansion, the terminal is moving its operations to the Deurganckdock (left bank). The company expects the MPET/PSA DGD will reach a capacity of 9 million TEU, making it the largest terminal in Europe.As World Maritime News recently reported, the port handled over 156,5 million tonnes of freight in the first nine months of this year, up 5.5% on the same period last year, putting the port firmly in position to end 2015 with a record breaking total volume of 200 million tonnes.World Maritime News Staff, Image: The Port of Antwerplast_img read more

Last, but not least

first_imgHLPFI’s Peter Edwards and Luke King , joined by supporter Suhail Shaikh (pictured below), managing director ofSahil Group Pvt Ltd , took part in today’s business fun run in Singapore, organised by Flensborg & Associates to coincide with the Breakbulk Asia event.They limped home with the slowest competitors, despite putting in a good effort.”It was fun,” said publisher Peter Edwards, “but I won’t be giving up the day job.”Participants were welcomed by 113-year-old Sister Teresa Hsu , who has devoted a lifetime to caring for others. A Royal Free Hospital-trained nurse, she has worked without pay in countries around the world, providing food and support for the homeless, hungry and orphans.Proceeds from the run went to Teresa’s Heart to Heart charity, , which helps underprivileged people in Singapore.last_img read more

Another projects network launched

first_imgBBOL says that the network has been established to provide a platform for members to exchange leads and project needs, whether on air, land or ocean.It is also intended to link freight forwarding and transport specialists with industry-related service providers, such as equipment suppliers, hauliers, barge companies, storage and warehousing providers and Customs agents.BPCLN will offer exclusive membership by business segment in every country, and members will also have access to BBOL’s master bill of lading on a purchase basis, informed the network.www.breakbulkoceanlines.comlast_img read more

Yorkshire merger creates 23-partner firm

first_imgTwo practices in Huddersfield and with offices across West Yorkshire are to merge, creating a 23-partner and 250-person business.Ramsdens Solicitors and Baxter Caulfield today announced they had joined forces to meet the increased demand for its services, particularly in corporate and commercial areas.Paul Joyce, managing partner at Ramsdens, said that the new firm will have one of the strongest corporate and commercial teams in West Yorkshire. ‘The skill and experience that Baxter Caulfield will bring compliments perfectly the existing strengths within the Ramsdens practice.’Stephen Newman, senior partner at Baxter Caulfield said: ‘We are excited to be teaming up with Ramsdens, an outstanding law firm which has gone from strength to strength over the last decade. We share an ambition for growth and the most important core value, delivering an excellent service to clients.’The merged firm, trading as Ramsdens Solicitors LLP, will operate from today (1 October).last_img read more

Solicitors and bar asked to weigh in on ‘joint enterprise’ debate

first_imgSolicitors are being called upon to discuss how and why young people are convicted under the ‘joint enterprise’ doctrine and the effect that the law is having on practitioners’ work.Legal professionals, including solicitors, barristers as well as police officers, are being sought to help with a research project being led by the Universities of Cambridge and Kent.Susie Hulley, a senior research associate at the University of Cambridge, who is co-leading the research, said she wanted to hear from professionals with experience of joint enterprise cases involving young defendants charged with murder or serious violence.She told the Gazette: ‘We want to understand the experience of a practitioner – how they handled the case, the types of cases they come across, any narratives that tend to happen in court. It’s a relatively unexplored area and we don’t know how many people this has affected.’The current research, ’friendship, violence and legal consciousness in the context of joint enterprise’, emerged from a study of men and women serving life sentences for murder that Hulley undertook with colleagues in 2014.Around half of the 333 people who took part in that study said they were convicted under joint enterprise. A disproportionate number of the male prisoners were black or mixed race.A follow up study by Manchester Metropolitan University in 2016 said that ‘gang discourse’ was being invoked in trials involving black and minority ethnic men. But Hulley explained that research in the UK indicates that ‘gangs’ are fluid and can involve young people who are unaware of the behaviour of those they associate with. She added that establishing a ‘common purpose’ for a serious offence, as is the case with joint enterprise, is complex.Hulley said she hoped practitioners could give an interpretation of young people’s social relations and the extent to which these influence practice in cases of serious group violence.The research will also hear from young people, some of whom have been involved in group violence and some who have not, and people jailed for serious violence involving multiple parties when they were younger.Interviewees will be anonymous and will not be asked to reveal information about previous or existing cases. Interviews will be carried out during November and December this year.last_img read more